Commodus was the son of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.He was the brother of Princess Lucilla, and uncle of Lucius.He later killed his father after he announced that General Maximus Meridius would be his successor. Commodus was a bad emperor, but the time itself was hard. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. And in 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and joint emperor. Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch. The emperor Titus Flavian completed the Colosseum and endeared himself to the public with his generosity only to have his good works undone by his brother Domitian, who was assassinated by his own court. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus) 193-211: Clodius Albinus (Imp. In the view of Dio Cassius, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".. After those attempts on his life, Commodus spent much of his time outside Rome, mostly on the family estates at Lanuvium. Commodus was a Roman emperor during the early years of the first millennium. Commodus (Imp. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. Lucius Aurelius Commodus was born to the philosopher/king and Faustina the Younger at Lanuvium, a city fourteen miles southeast of Rome on August 31, 161 CE. Commodus (Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. Who was Early Rome ruled by the? 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. Roman History. Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, opponents always submitted to the emperor, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, "History Behind The Game – Ryse: Son of Rome", "Box Set Binge: Roman Empire: Reign of Blood, The Path and Deutschland 83", "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commodus&oldid=991228974, Roman emperors murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10. From an early age he displayed signs of megalomania and he heeded no-one apart from his father. Names: 31 Augustus 161: Lucius Aurelius Commodus; 12 October 166: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar; 172: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus; 175: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus Sarmaticus; June 177: Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Commodus Augustus; 17 March 180: Marcus Aurelius Commodus … Aurelius’ physician, Galen, was tasked with looking after Commodus to ensure that he stayed healthy and well. Commodus (/ˈkɒmədəs/; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. An illustration of the murder of Commmodus. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Vol. Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. He was the tenth of fourteen children and the only son to survive - his twin brother Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius died at the age of four. At first, they poisoned him, but Commodus managed to vomit up the poison. Gibbon claimed that the period of their rule was the happiest period in human existence.The Roman Empire was largely peaceful and well-governed. As in the past - such as in the death of Emperor Caligula - the choice of a successor fell to the Praetorian Guard. His great simplicity, however, together with his cowardice, made him the slave of his companions, and it was through them that he at first, out of ignorance, missed the better life and then was led on into lustful and cruel habits, which soon became second nature.". The following year, Commodus became Aurelius’ co-Emperor, and they reigned together from then until Aurelius’ death in 180. He was portrayed by Joaquin Phoenix, who would later portray Arthur Fleck in Joker. Reihe 4, Bd. He also declared himself to be an incarnation of the god Hercules and forced the senate to recognize his divinity. Die ''Terme Taurine'' von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad. This is just a curiosity thing for me. ), and Earnest Cary. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193: Didius Julianus (Imp. He also reduced the silver purity from 79 percent to 76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Commodus's sister ruled briefly after Commodus was killed by Maximus. Commodus rises to power as Rome's new emperor, but not everyone supports his ascent. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … Commodus was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple," meaning during his father's reign. The era of the ‘Five Good Emperors’ is often seen as the high point of Rome and Roman civilization. The first attempt used poisoned meat, but Commodus vomited it up. "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. Commodus would “enter the arena in the garb of Mercury and casting aside all his other garments, would begin his exhibition wearing only a tunic and unshod.”, As disgusted as the senators were by the sight of their emperor running around half-naked in the sands of the amphitheater, they were too terrified to do anything but play along. It worked and the Nerva-Antonine dynasty which had ruled Rome for nearly a century had come to an end and the city soon descended into civil war. Commodus defeats his sister's coup but withdraws from governing, allowing others to amass power while he engages in an affair and banishes his wife. Commodus' death marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Dio, Cassius. Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. The son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus wants to be seen as the most powerful Roman emperor of all time so he would be worshiped as a god. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7.  Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. In 172 AD, during the Marcomannic War, Commodus was given the victory title Germanicus. In 177 AD following Cassius’ rebellion, Emperor Aurelius announced Commodus as Augustus and co-emperor. – E. Mer-ten, Bäder und Badegepflogenheiten in der Darstel-lung der Historia Augusta (Antiquitas. He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. 16.  On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus, giving his son the same status as his own and formally sharing power. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name of the city of Rome and its institutions. Cassius Dio recorded one incident where, after becoming tired out, Commodus ordered a cup of chilled wine to him and “drank it at one gulp.” In an amusing anecdote, Dio continued, “At this both the populace and we senators all immediately shouted out the words so familiar at drinking-bouts, ‘Long life to you!'”. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short lived, being the first to fall victim to the Year of the Five Emperors. His tale wasn't believed and he was immediately put to death. Commodus, Emperor of Rome.  His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first devaluation during Nero's reign. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. However, even these favorites were not safe from his fury. Innumerable statues around the empire were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, reinforcing the image of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector, and a warrior who fought against men and beasts (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator" below). The Roman emperors were the rulers of the Roman Empire dating from the granting of the … The long line of Roman emperors is marked with a strange pattern: Almost every exceptionally brilliant emperor was succeeded by an exceptionally mad one. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). Biography. Commodus was a cruel man. … See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. In March of 161 A.D., Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius died about 4 months shy of a 23-year reign and was succeeded by co-emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.On August 31 st of the same year, Faustina the Younger (wife and maternal cousin of Marcus) gave birth to twins: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (who died about 4 years later) and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Commodus in 180 AD. As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several years. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman pound to 105 per Roman pound (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). Commodus was an emperor that spent too much money on Gladitoral Games. Pertinax ( / ˈpɜːrtɪnæks /; Publius Helvius Pertinax; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was a Roman soldier and politician who ruled as Roman emperor for the first three months of 193. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. We lived and worked in Rome for four years and spent a lot of time learning about the art, architecture, culture and history. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus. During his reign he self-identified with Hercules and wanted to appear god-like to the people of Rome. Every illness was treated to ensure he remained strong and hale. Publius Domitius Calvisius Tullus Ruso, Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus (177, 191–192), Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (180–191), Commodus is a minor antagonist in the 2005 video game, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships, G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen,", P. A. Brunt, "The Fall of Perennis: Dio-Xiphilinus 79.9.2,", J. Gagé, "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. His statues were also torn down. Commodus vollständiger Name wechselte mehrmals; geboren wurde er als Lucius Aurelius Commodus, seit der Erhebung zum Mitkaiser 177 hieß er Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus, bei der Übernahme der Alleinherrschaft im März 180 nahm er den Namen Antoninus und im Oktober desselben Jahres auch das Pränomen seines verstorbenen Vaters Mark Aurel an. Aurelius constantly gives his son lectures on duty and morality, he was as stern and powerful as Zeus. Heinz, W. (1986). The Roman Emperors (1985) p. 99. After Commodus was assassinated, a senator called Pertinax was chosen to replace him. Wikimedia CommonsA bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, styled as if he were a reincarnation of Hercules, which is precisely what he believed himself to be. On 23 December 176, the two imperatores celebrated a joint triumph, and Commodus was given tribunician power. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. “Commodus was a greater curse to the Romans than any pestilence or any crime” and the city had descended into bankruptcy and chaos. The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. In 180 AD, Marcus Aurelius died, leaving Commodus as sole Emperor of Rome. Since there were no familial candidates, they chose a former teacher and military commander, Publius Helvius Pertinax. He was badly deluded and narcissistic, a result of bei… At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed. Having been accepted as Emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. b. freeing slaves who would support him. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, Commodus assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood. Lv 7. Commodus received extensive tutoring by a multitude of teachers with a focus on intellectual education. 8 years ago. His twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius, died at age four. In 182 A.D., Commodus’ sister Lucilla organized an attempt on her brother’s life. At the end of June, a mob demonstrated against Cleander during a horse race in the Circus Maximus: he sent the Praetorian Guard to put down the disturbances, but Pertinax, who was now City Prefect of Rome, dispatched the Vigiles Urbani to oppose them. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. Usapyon (Japanese: USA (うさ)ピョン, USApyon) is a Rank B, Ice-attribute 'Merican Yo-kai of the Shady tribe and the Uwanosora tribe starting in Yo-kai Watch 4. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. 8 years ago. They then sent in an athlete to strangle the 31-year old emperor in his bath. Updated October 06, 2019. The historian Herodian, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man.  Later, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart and afterwards carried his sword and the bleeding head of the dead bird over to the Senators' seating area and motioned as though they were next. The fall of Perennis brought a new spate of executions: Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide. The emperor eventually decided to abandon “the reins of the empire” and chose to give “himself up to chariot-racing and licentiousness and performed scarcely any of the duties pertaining to his office.” He appointed a series of his favorites to manage the administration of his empire, each of whom seemed crueler and more incompetent than the last. Herodian's Roman History F.L. Marcus Aurelius did not try to oust his son as emperor. Cleander was in fact the person who had murdered Saoterus. Silver Spoon in Mouth Born on August 31, 161 AD, to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina, Commodus was the apple of his father’s eye. Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to … On November 27, 176, Aurelius promoted 15-year old Commodus to the rank of Imperator, which some say is a role similar to commander. After this look at Commodus, check out these interesting facts about Ancient Rome. He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178. (MARCUS AURELIUS COMMODUS ANTONINUS).. Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192.He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and Anna Faustina, and was the first among the Roman emperors to enjoy the distinction of being born in the purple.. His reign, 180-193, was the turning-point in the greatness of Rome.Some historians have attempted to exonerate Commodus from the charge of … Fight for Glory Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus) 176-192: Pertinax (Imp. English translation) UCLA Press, Berkeley CA (1961), 1.15.1-9, Dio (Cassius. 5. Usapyon is the third mascot for the Yo-kai Watch franchise as well as the mascot for Yo-kai Watch Blasters: Moon Rabbit Crew. He promptly renamed himself Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, and, throughout his rule from 177 to 192 AD, he became increasingly cruel and sadistic. Perhaps seeing this as an opportunity, early in 192 Commodus, declaring himself the new Romulus, ritually re-founded Rome, renaming the city Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. 4. The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia.  The Romans found Commodus' gladiatorial combats to be scandalous and disgraceful. Reign. Source(s): College. The latter eventually would be used as a conventional title by Roman emperors, starting about a century later, but Commodus seems to have been the first to assume it.. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army,", This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 00:00. These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline with World History . , Thus, he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire, Roman life, and religion. Like emperors after him, one way Commodus kept power was by a. lowering taxes on wealthy people. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a secutor. He was the first emperor to be ‘born in the purple’, that is, during the reign of his father. I mean, he ruled as emperor for 12 years before being assassinated, and he co-ruled with Marcus Aurelius for three years before that. Marcus Aurelius died there on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor.  Cassius Dio and the writers of the Augustan History say that Commodus was a skilled archer, who could shoot the heads off ostriches in full gallop, and kill a panther as it attacked a victim in the arena. Petrinax was acclaimed Emperor but he was later deposed, and this led to a series of civil wars that only ended with the rise of Septimius Severus. Augustus (Imp. Her motive is alleged to have been envy of the Empress Crispina. The Emperor Commodus (reigned 180-192) liked fighting in the arena like a gladiator. The senate acclaimed Pertinax as emperor, damned the memory of Commodus, and undid all his ambitious renaming. The new emperor made a treaty with the German tribe of Marcomanni, his father's enemies. The second, the freeman Cleander, he allowed to be torn apart by a mob who were outraged at the freeman’s abuses. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. 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